Sponsored by National Institute of Justice Grant (2005-MU-BX-K078)

References at bottom of page


The authors wish to thank the following individuals for their assistance and cooperation in various ways including providing data: David Hunt (NMNH, Smithsonian Institution), Jonathan Bethard (USF), Elizabeth DiGangi (Binghamton-SUNY), Bruce Anderson (PCOME), Hugo Cardoso (Bocage Museum, Portugal; SFU), Greg Berg (DPAA), Maria Dolores Garralda (Universidad Complutense, Spain), Richard Jantz (UTK), Erin Kimmerle (USF), Antonio Martinez, Janet Monge (U. Penn), Jose Vicente Pachar (Instituto de Medicina Legal), Juan Carlos Prados (Departmento de Anatomia e Embrologia Humana, Spain, Jose Luis Prieto (Instituto Anatomico Forense, Spain), Rick Snow, Kate Spradley (TX State), Doug Ubelaker (NMNH, Smithsonian Institution), Danny Westcott (TX State), Shanna Williams (University of SC, School of Medicine), Gisselle Garcia (AMNH), NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, American Museum of Natural History, Georgia Bureau of Investigation, and the North Carolina Office of the Chief Medical Examiner.


Ann Ross, PH.D., D-ABFA, C-FASE

Department of Biological Sciences

North Carolina State University


Dennis E. Slice, Ph.D.

Department of Scientific Computing

Florida State University

Devin Geraci- for data verification and cleaning



Petra Urbanova, Ph.D.

Masaryk University

Czech Republic

COLIPR software program for sex estimation


Eugenia Cunha, Ph.D., C-FASE

University of Coimbra


Laboratory Website


Rob O'Neill

Digital Arts Lab

Pratt Institute


2019 A.H. Ross, Slice, D.E., Small, C., Lottering, T. New Version Release of 3D-ID Geometric Morphometric Classification of Crania for Forensic Scientists. 71st Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Baltimore, MD.

2014 Urbanová, P., Ross, A.H., Jurda, M. and Nogueira, M.I. Testing the reliability of software tools in sex and ancestry estimation in a multi-ancestral Brazilian sample. Legal Medicine, 16(5), pp.264-273.

2014 A.H. Ross, A.R. Hale, D.E. Slice. Logiciel 3D-ID : Morphométrie géométrique pour la détermination du sexe et de l’origine biogéographique, In T. Delabarde and B. Ludes (eds.), Manuel pratique d’Anthropologie médico-légale, Eska, Paris.

2011 A. Humphries, A.H. Ross. Sexual Dimorphism in the Portuguese Population, Anthropologie: International Journal of the Science of Man 49:13-20.

2011 D. Ubelaker, A.H. Ross, K. Zarenko. Dental Disease in Nineteenth Century Spain, Anthropologie International Journal of the Science of Man XLIII3: 273-282.

2011 A.H. Ross, D.H. Ubelaker, E.H. Kimmerle. Implications of Dimorphism, Population Variation, and Secular Change in Estimating Population Affinity in the Iberian Peninsula, Forensic Science International 206:214e1-214e5.

2011 A.H. Ross, M.J. Manneschi.New Identification Criteria for the Chilean Population: Estimation of Sex and Stature, Forensic Science International 204: 206e1-206e3

2008 A.H. Ross, S. Williams.Testing Repeatability and Error of Coordinate Landmark Data Acquired from Crania,”Journal of Forensic Sciences 53: 782-785.

2008 E.H. Kimmerle, A.H. Ross, D.E. Slice. Sexual Dimorphism in America: Geometric Morphometric Analysis of the Craniofacial Region.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 53: 54-57.

2004 A.H. Ross, D.E. Slice, D.H. Ubelaker, A.B. Falsetti.Population Affinities of 19th Century Cuban Crania: Implications for Identification Criteria of Cuban Americans in South Florida, Journal of Forensic Sciences 49:11-16.

You should cite 3D-ID in accordance with standard professional practice as:

Slice, D.E. and A. Ross. 2009. 3D-ID: geometric morphometric classification of crania for forensice scientists. Version <i>. <j> (<ddmmyyyy>).

where the elements between '<' and '>' are to be replaced with appropriate information from the Help dialog of the version of the program you are using.